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The Sixties: A Time in Transition

Politics and the Cold War

In this photograph Senator John F. Kennedy is campaigning in Pasadena, California, during the 1960 presidential campaign.  The 1960 election campaign was dominated by rising Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union.  Despite reservations from leadership in the Democratic Party about Kennedy’s youth and inexperience, he drew large crowds of supporters during campaign rallies.  Kennedy's victory over Vice President Richard Nixon was among the closest margins of victory in American history.   This photograph is part of the Oliver Atkins Photograph Collection. 
Fallout Protection: What to Know and Do about Nuclear Attack was published in 1961 by the Department of Defense, Office of Civil Defense.  In the preliminary pages, the Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamera explains that this booklet “gives the American people the facts they need to know about the dangers in the thermonuclear attack and what they can do to protect themselves.”  The booklet provides basic facts about nuclear attach, includes pictures of supplies one should have in preparation for a nuclear attack, and outlines the national civil defense program.  The booklet reflects the concens of Americans during the Cold War era.  Fallout Protection is part of the Francis J. McNamara Papers, which contains materials collected by Francis J. McNamara dating from 1928 to 1997 pertaining to American politics and culture during this period. The main concentration in this collection deals with national security with respect to the influence of Communism, the Civil Rights Movement, and counterculture. It is comprised of newspaper and magazine articles, letters, memoranda and other personal documents, U.S. government documents, pamphlets, and other printed materials.
Special Warfare Area Handbook for Cuba is a response to the political and economic developments in Cuba since 1959, when Fidel Castro overthrew Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. Prepared by the United States Foreign Affairs Study Division of the Special Operations Research Office, and published in June 1961, the handbook is a groundbreaking analysis of psychological warfare. The forward asserts that "psychological operations and unconventional warfare requires an understanding of the likes, dislikes, attitudes, and human strengths and weaknesses of target groups.” The handbook explores the general character of Cuban society, such as the arts, religion, the judicial system, family relationships, and labor relations.  It also offers historical context and a detailed analysis of the Cuban government. Often referred to as "winning the hearts and minds of the people," the general lessons regarding psychological operations and unconventional warfare outlined here would eventually become paramount to the conflict in Vietnam.  The handbook on display is copy 429 of 500 copies. 
Barry Goldwater: Where He Stands, Issues and Answers was produced by the Citizens for Goldwater-Miller Committee of Orange County.  Intended to provide “an authentic record of Senator Barry Goldwater’s words on important issues facing the nation and world today,” it outlines Goldwater’s stance on a variety of issues including Civil Rights, Cuba, the United Nations, and Federalism.  Barry Goldwater, a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–1987), was the Republican Party's nominee for President in the 1964 election. An articulate and charismatic figure in the 1960s, he was one of the leading conservatives of the era.  Despite losing the 1964 election, Goldwater is the politician most often credited for sparking the resurgence of the American conservative political movement in the 1960s.   Barry Goldwater: Where He Stands, Issues and Answers is part of the American Political Items Collectors Collection (APIC).  This collection contains donations of scholarly material that relates to national political campaigns as well as American history dating from 1895 to 1988. This collection is comprised of presidential campaigning materials that stem from bumper stickers to voting ballots. Not only is it an extensive collection of presidential campaigns, but it also houses historical magazines, newspapers, and many other manuscripts and books.
Displayed here is an admission ticket to the 1964 Republican National Convention held in San Francisco. The Republican National Convention of 1964 was a tension-filled contest. Goldwater was regarded as the "conservatives' leading spokesman," and Goldwater's conservatives openly clashed with Rockefeller's moderates. As a result, Goldwater was not as popular with the moderates and liberals of the Republican party. When Rockefeller attempted to deliver a speech, he was booed by the convention's conservative delegates, who regarded him as a member of the "Eastern liberal establishment." Despite the infighting, Goldwater was easily nominated. He chose William E. Miller, a Congressman from New York, as his running mate. In his acceptance speech, he declared communism a "principal disturber of the peace in the world today" and said, "I would remind you that extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice. And let me remind you also that moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue." Some people, including those within his own campaign staff, believed this weakened Goldwater's chances, as he effectively severed ties with the moderates and liberals of the Republican Party. Former GOP presidential nominee Richard M. Nixon introduced the Arizonan as "Mr. Conservative" and "Mr. Republican" and he continued that "he is the man who, after the greatest campaign in history will be Mr. President — Barry Goldwater". This item is also from the American Political Items Collectors Collection.  
Vietnam: the Dirty War is a pamphlet containing five articles previously published in the French newspaper, Le Monde.  The individual who compiled the pamphlet, Robert Guillain, explains that Vietnam: the Dirty War serves to shed light on what it was like to live in South Vietnam during in the 1960s.  Guillain believes there is a bias in American newspapers and that the French are able to provide a more accurate depiction of life in South Vietnam.   The articles focus on topics such as Saigon, bombing of the villages, and the colonial occupation of Vietnam.  Vietnam: the Dirty War, published in 1966, is part of the Edwin W. Lynch Vietnam War Protest Collection.  The collection provides information on the discontent and disillusionment which came to exist among some segments of the American people as a result of American military intervention in Southeast Asia. The collection covers the period of time ranging from 1965 to 1975, with the bulk of the material from the years 1967 to 1971.
These temporary press passes to the 1968 Democratic Convention belonged Saturday Evening Post photographer Oliver Atkins and are from the Oliver Atkins Photographic Collection. The 1968 Democratic National Convention is often remembered for the protest demonstrations that took place outside the convention on the streets of Chicago.  However, these press passes remind us that the 1968 convention was like other political conventions in which members of the news press attended to report on the speeches, festivities, and candidates. 
This two-sided flyer is a concise and practical guide, encouraging individuals to show opposition to the Vietnam War outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.  It includes a map of the demonstration location, plus information about the convention schedule and alternative demonstration locations.  As the flyer explains, the protesters will “focus on an agenda which the convention will overlook.” Protest organizers, including members from the Youth International Party known as Yippies, had been planning the protest for months before the August convention, and demonstrations outside the Democratic National Convention quickly escalated.  For eight days, protesters clashed with police on the streets of Chicago.  An estimated 10,000 demonstrators gathered in Chicago for the convention where they were met by 23,000 police and National Guardsmen. The flyer is also from the Edwin W. Lynch Vietnam War Protest Collection.